Converting files between various character sets and usages

If you need any type of character set conversion, you can use recode tool.

It is works for lots of character sets and it is even supports some other operations: converting to base64, quoted-printable, CRLF conversions etc.

You can find a list of conversion options with:

recode -l | less

If you want to change a file’s encoding iso-8859-9 to utf8:

recode ISO-8859-9..UTF8 < example.txt > example.txt.utf8

Or if you want to base64 encode:

recode ../b64 < example.txt > example.txt.b64